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Find sources: — · · · · September 2007 In anda control or non-printing character NPC is a a in athat does not represent a written symbol.
click are used as to cause effects other than the addition of a symbol to the text.
All other characters are mainly printing, printable, orexcept perhaps for the "space" character see.
All entries in the table below code 32 technically the control code set are of this kind, including used to separate lines of text.
This second set is called the set.
These 65 control codes were carried over to.
Unicode added more characters that could be considered controls, but it makes a distinction between these "Formatting characters" such as theand the 65 Control characters.
The EBCDIC character set contains 65 control codes, including click the following article of the ASCII control codes as well as additional codes which are mostly used to control IBM peripherals.
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January 2009 in are a form of control character.
A form of control characters were introduced in the 1870 : NUL and DEL.
The 1901 added the CR and LFand other versions of the Baudot code included other control characters.
The BELwhich rang a bell to alert operators, was also an early control character.
Control characters have also been called "format effectors".
Used as the end of line marker in most and variants.
Used as the end of line marker in, and variants.
A CR+LF pair is used by -80 and its derivatives including andand by such as, and.
Control characters may be described as doing something when the user inputs them, such as code 3ETX, to interrupt the running process, or code 4EOT,used to end text input or to exit a.
These uses usually have little to do with their use when they are in text being output, and on modern systems usually do not involve the transmission of the code number at all instead the program gets the fact that the user is holding down the Ctrl key and pushing the key marked with a 'C'.
There were quite a few control characters defined 33 in ASCII, and the ECMA-48 standard adds 32 more.
This was because early terminals had very primitive mechanical or electrical controls that made any kind of state-remembering quite expensive to implement, thus a different code for each and every function looked like a requirement.
It quickly became possible and inexpensive to interpret sequences of codes to perform a function, and device makers found a way to send hundreds of device instructions.
Specifically, they used ASCII code 27 escapefollowed by a series of characters called a "control sequence" or "escape sequence".
The mechanism was invented bythe father of ASCII.
Several standards exist for these sequences, notably.
But the number of non-standard variations in use is large, especially among printers, where technology has advanced far faster than any standards body can possibly keep up with.
Formatting codes are distinct, in General Category "Cf".
The Cc control characters have no Name in Unicode, but are given labels such as "" instead.
In one implementation, the control key generates the code 64 places below the code for the generally uppercase letter it is pressed in combination with i.
The other diamonds worth the money is to take the ASCII code produced by the key and it with 31, forcing bits 6 and 7 to zero.
For example, pressing "control" and the letter "g" or "G" code 107 in or 71 inwhich is 01000111 inproduces the code 7 Bell, 7 in base 10, or 00000111 in binary.
The NULL character code 0 is represented by Ctrl-" " being the code immediately before "A" in the ASCII character set.
For convenience, a lot of terminals accept Ctrl-Space as an alias for Ctrl.
In either case, this produces one of the 32 ASCII control codes between 0 and 31.
This approach is not able to represent the DEL character because of its value code 127but Ctrl-?
When the control key is held down, letter keys produce the same control characters regardless of the state of the or keys.
In other words, it does not matter whether the key would have produced an upper-case or a lower-case letter.
The interpretation of the control key with the space, graphics character, and digit keys ASCII codes 32 to 63 vary between systems.
Some will produce the same character code as if the control key were not held down.
Other systems translate these keys into control characters when the control key is held down.
The interpretation of the control key with non-ASCII "foreign" keys also varies between systems.
Control characters generated using letter keys are thus displayed with the upper-case form of the letter.
Keyboards also typically have a few single keys which produce control character codes.
For example, the key labelled "Backspace" typically produces code 8, "Tab" code 9, "Enter" or "Return" code 13 though some keyboards might produce code 10 for "Enter".
Many keyboards include keys that do not correspond to any ASCII printable or control character, for example cursor control arrows and functions.
The associated keypresses are communicated to computer programs by one of four methods: appropriating otherwise unused control characters; using some encoding other than ASCII; using multi-character control sequences; or using an additional mechanism outside of generating characters.
Keyboards attached to stand-alone made in the 1980s typically use one or both of the first two methods.
Modern computer keyboards generate that identify the specific physical keys that are pressed; computer software then determines how to handle the keys that are pressed, including any of the four methods described above.
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February 2012 The control characters were designed to fall into a few groups: printing and display control, data structuring, transmission control, and miscellaneous.
An early implementation of this idea was the.
Later, control characters were integrated into the stream of data to be printed.
The carriage return character CRwhen sent to such a device, causes it to put the character at the edge of the paper at which writing begins it may, or may not, also move the printing position to the next line.
It may or may notdepending on the device and its configuration, also move the printing position to the start of the next line which would be the leftmost position for scripts, such as the alphabets used for Western languages, and the rightmost position for scripts such as the Hebrew and Arabic alphabets.
The backspace character BS moves the printing position one character space backwards.
On printers, this is most often used so the printer can overprint characters to make other, not normally available, characters.
On terminals and other electronic output devices, there are often software or hardware configuration choices which will allow a destruct backspace i.
The shift in and shift out characters SO and SI selected alternate character sets, fonts, underlining or other printing modes.
Escape sequences were often used to do the same thing.
With the advent of that did not physically print on paper and so offered more flexibility regarding screen placement, erasure, and so forth, printing control codes were adapted.
Form feeds, for example, usually cleared the screen, there being no new paper page to move to.
More complex escape sequences were developed to take advantage of the flexibility of the new terminals, and indeed of newer printers.
The concept of a control character had always been somewhat limiting, and was extremely so when used with new, much more flexible, hardware.
Control sequences sometimes implemented as escape sequences could match the new flexibility and power and became the standard method.
However, there were, and remain, a large variety of standard sequences to choose from.
End of medium EM warns that the tape or other recording medium is ending.
The separator control characters are not overloaded; there is no general use of them except to separate data into structured groupings.
Their numeric values are contiguous with the space character, which can be considered a member of the group, as a word separator.
The start of heading SOH character was to mark a non-data section of a data stream—the part of a stream containing addresses and other housekeeping data.
The start of text character STX marked the end of the header, and the start of the textual part of a stream.
The end of text character ETX marked the end of the data of a message.
A widely used convention is to make the two characters preceding ETX a checksum or for error-detection purposes.
The end of transmission block character ETB was used to indicate the end of a block of data, where data was divided into such blocks for transmission purposes.
The escape character was intended to "quote" the next character, if it was another control character it would print it instead of performing the control function.
It is almost never used for this purpose today.
The substitute character was intended to request a translation of the next character from a printable character to another value, usually by setting bit 5 to zero.
This is handy because some media such as sheets of paper produced by typewriters can transmit only printable characters.
However, on MS-DOS systems with files opened in text mode, "end of text" or "end of file" is marked by this character, instead of the orwhich are common on other operating systems.
The cancel character signalled that the previous element should be discarded.
The negative acknowledge character is a definite flag for, usually, noting that reception was a problem, and, often, that the current element should be sent again.
The acknowledge character is normally used as a flag to indicate what are the master control codes problem detected with current element.
When a transmission medium is half duplex that is, it can transmit in only one direction at a timethere is usually a master station that can transmit at any time, and one or more slave stations that transmit when they have permission.
The enquire character is article source used by a master station to ask a slave station to send its next message.
A slave station indicates that it has completed its transmission by sending the what are the master control codes of transmission character.
The device control codes DC1 to DC4 were originally generic, to be implemented as necessary by each device.
However, a universal need in data transmission is to request the sender to stop transmitting when a receiver is temporarily unable to accept any more data.
It has become so widely used that most don't realize it is not part of official ASCII.
This technique, however implemented, avoids additional wires in the data cable devoted only to transmission management, which saves money.
A sensible protocol for the use of such transmission flow control signals must be used, to avoid potential deadlock conditions, however.
The data link escape character was intended to be a signal to the other end of a data link that the following character is a control character such as STX or ETX.
For example a packet may be structured in the following way.
Many of the ASCII control characters were designed for devices of the time that are what are the master control codes often seen today.
For example, code 22, "synchronous idle"was originally sent by synchronous modems which have to send data constantly when there was no actual data to send.
Modern systems typically use a start bit to announce the beginning of a transmitted word— this is a feature of asynchronous communication.
Synchronous communication links were more often seen with mainframes, where they were typically run over corporate leased lines to connect a mainframe to another mainframe or perhaps a minicomputer.
Code 0 ASCII code name is a special case.
In paper tape, it is the case when there are no holes.
It is convenient click treat this as a fill character with no meaning otherwise.
Since the position of a NUL character has no holes punched, it can be replaced with any other character at a later time, so it was typically used to reserve space, either for correcting errors or for inserting information that would be available at a later time or in another place.
In computing it is often used for padding in fixed length records and more commonly, to mark the end of a string.
Its 7-bit code is all-bits-on in binary, which essentially erased a character cell on a when overpunched.
Paper tape was a common storage medium when ASCII was developed, with a computing history dating back to WWII code breaking equipment at.
Paper tape became obsolete in the 1970s, so this clever aspect of ASCII rarely saw any use after that.
But because its code is in the range occupied by other printable characters, and because it had no official assigned glyph, many computer equipment vendors used it as an additional printable character often an all-black "box" character useful for erasing text by overprinting with ink.
Non-erasable are typically implemented as arrays of fusible elements, each representing awhich can only be switched one way, usually from one to zero.
In such PROMs, the DEL and NUL characters can be used in the same way that they were used on punched tape: one to reserve meaningless fill bytes that can be written later, and the other to convert written bytes to meaningless fill bytes.
For PROMs that switch one to zero, the roles of NUL and DEL are reversed; also, DEL will only work with 7-bit characters, which are rarely used today; for 8-bit content, the character code 255, commonly defined as a nonbreaking space character, can be used instead of DEL.
Many do not allow control characters in theas they may have reserved functions.
Archived from on October 28, 2009.
An old RFC, which explains the structure and meaning of the control characters in chapters 4.
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c# source code for master control panel
The remote control gives you access to all the features of your Channel Master CM-7000PAL DVR. You can set up the remote to control as many as three additional devices. These devices can be your TV, VCR or DVD player, and a third device (such as a VCR or DVD player, audio receiver, tuner or amplifier, or another TV or satellite receiver).
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